PARAPHILIA

Paraphilia is a rare disorder, and the best criteria for diagnosis come from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)1 or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The disorder is characterized by a 6-month period of recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies or sexual urges involving a specific act, depending on the paraphilia.

Paraphilia is a means for some people to release sexual energy or frustration. The act commonly is followed by arousal and orgasm, usually achieved by masturbation and fantasy. These disorders are not well recognized and often are difficult to treat for several reasons. Often, people who have these disorders conceal them, experience guilt and shame, have financial or legal problems, and can (at times) be uncooperative with medical professionals.

Some psychiatrists discuss whether paraphilias are a part of the impulse control disorders or if they fall within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders. The more common paraphilias include voyeurism and frotteurism, and the most rare paraphilia is zoophilia. In this age of computer technology, individuals can easily access information about paraphilias from any computer, thus fueling a disorder that already is difficult to control.

 

Pathophysiology

Many theories exist regarding the etiology of paraphilias, including psychoanalytical, biological, and sociobiological theories; however, none are conclusive. This subject requires additional research.

Psychoanalytical Theory

According to psychoanalytical theory, several possible factors may contribute to the origin of paraphilias. Freud and his colleagues suggested that some paraphilias may be attributed to possible distortion of the courtship phases. Normal courtship behavior is what brings males and females together for the purpose of mating. It usually occurs during adolescence and may or may not involve sexual intercourse at this early stage of sexual development. Courtship is composed of 4 definitive phases. 

  1. Location of a potential partner – The initial phase of courtship 
  2. Pretactile interaction – Talking or flirting with a potential partner 
  3. Tactile interaction – Usually consists of touching, hugging, hand holding, etc (This could also be considered foreplay.) 
  4. Effecting genital union – More commonly known as sexual intercourse 

According to this particular literature, distortions of the courtship behaviors are only associated with the first 3 phases.   

Although most of the population are able to appropriately engage in these 4 phases of interaction, other people are unable to adhere to these socially acceptable norms. Freud and his colleagues have indicated that certain deviant or unconventional sexual practices can be viewed as exaggerations of the 4 phases of courtship. Based on Freud’s research with incarcerated sex offenders, one distortion of courtship behavior may result in others.

Certain paraphilias are associated with distortions of courtship behaviors. 

  • Voyeurism: This is the distorted view of the initial courtship phase. Normally the initial courtship phase is known as locating a potential partner. Psychoanalysts postulate that voyeurism may be attributed to a child witnessing episodes of his or her parents engaged in sexual intercourse. Individuals with maladaptive social and sexual skills find voyeurism as an outlet for sexual pleasure void of the threat of sexual interaction. The risk or danger of discovery may likely give the voyeur a false sense of masculinity, this behavior tends to be similar for the exhibitionist as well. 
  • Exhibitionism: Psychoanalysts consider exhibitionism a distortion of the pretactile interaction of the courtship phase. Psychoanalytical theory is based on the theory that gender identity for little boys requires psychological separation from the mother, so that he will not identify with her as a member of the same sex as do little girls. Exhibitionists regard their mothers as rejecting them on the basis of their different genitalia. The act of exhibitionism forces women to accept them by forcing them to look at their genitals. The act of self-exposure is also a way for the exhibitionist to compensate for his introversion and lack of assertiveness. The act of exposing oneself may give the exhibitionist a false sense of power, and the danger of discovery may further reinforce this feeling. In general, psychoanalysts theorize that the act of an exhibitionist displaying his penis is a way of proving his manhood to the world, but more importantly to an adult woman. Narcissism, the extreme form of self-admiration, is also believed to contribute to exhibitionism. Many of these men are married and have regular sexual contact with their spouse. However, in the mind of the exhibitionist/narcissist, by receiving only his wife’s admiration of his genitalia is not sufficient in feeding his endless secondary narcissistic supply. Therefore, this leads to his search for other unsuspecting victims to fulfill his insatiable need for admiration. The exhibitionist is sometimes compared to an actor on stage who desires an audience, but does not want to participate in the act.
  • Toucherism and frotteurism: These are considered exaggerations of the tactile interaction of the courtship phase. These paraphilias provide a sexual outlet without the risk of rejection. Toucherism tends to occur in conjunction with other paraphilias.

 

Provided by

DR WIDODO JUDARWANTO
FIGHT CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AND PEDOPHILIA 

Yudhasmara Foundation

JL TAMAN BENDUNGAN ASAHAN 5 JAKARTA PUSAT, JAKARTA INDONESIA 10210

PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646

email : judarwanto@gmail.com, 

https://pedophiliasexabuse.wordpress.com/

Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved 

Provided by

DR WIDODO JUDARWANTO
FIGHT CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AND PEDOPHILIA

Yudhasmara Foundation

JL TAMAN BENDUNGAN ASAHAN 5 JAKARTA PUSAT, JAKARTA INDONESIA 10210

PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646

email : judarwanto@gmail.com,

https://pedophiliasexabuse.wordpress.com/

Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: