n. recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child
–American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

It’s easier not to ask too many questions about pedophilia. The questions make you blush; some of the answers make your skin crawl. But it seems that almost daily we see another grown man tell his story and weep, suddenly becoming the terrified kid he once was. All the revelations, all spilling out at once, have created a fog: Why are there so many people who want to molest children? How can we stop them? Are we overreacting?

The flood of reports could almost make you think that everyone who sexually abuses a child is a Roman Catholic priest. In fact, the perpetrators are a disturbingly diverse lot. There’s the Chicago-area nurse who molested up to 18 patients, including a 9-year-old girl who had suffered a brain aneurysm and later died. There’s the 33-year-old Nevada day-care worker who committed hundreds of sexual acts on at least nine children, mostly ages 2 and 3–and videotaped them. Some of the most heartbreaking allegations involve the American Boychoir School, a top choral program in Princeton, N.J. More than a dozen alumni from the 1960s to the ’80s now say they were sexually abused by at least 11 former staff members. Says John Hardwicke Jr., 44, who claims he was raped repeatedly at the boarding school: “What we all seemed to share was this sense of darkness.”

But it is possible to cast light on this difficult subject. Though researchers have many unanswered questions about child sexual abusers, a serious, if small, academic field is devoted to understanding and preventing their behavior–and to comprehending its effects on their victims. Such work can require cold-eyed questions that poke around the edges of our darkest taboos. At the outset, it’s important to note that news accounts often conflate two phenomena: pedophilia and child sexual abuse. According to Dr. Fred Berlin, a Johns Hopkins University professor who founded the National Institute for the Study, Prevention and Treatment of Sexual Trauma in Baltimore, Md., pedophilia is a distinct sexual orientation marked by persistent, sometimes exclusive, attraction to prepubescent children. Dr. John Bradford, a University of Ottawa psychiatrist who has spent 23 years studying pedophilia–which is listed as an illness in the manual psychiatrists use to make diagnoses–estimates its prevalence at maybe 4% of the population. (Those attracted to teenagers are sometimes said to suffer “ephebophilia,” but perhaps because so many youth-obsessed Americans would qualify, psychiatrists don’t classify ephebophilia as an illness.)

A psychiatric diagnosis of pedophilia merely indicates one’s desires; not all pedophiles act on their urges and actually commit child sexual abuse. Plenty of sexual abuse of kids is committed by ordinary people not generally attracted to children. That’s one reason the incidence of child sexual abuse is so maddeningly high. A Department of Health and Human Services study estimates that victimizers sexually abused 93,000 U.S. children in 1999 (the latest year for which data are available). But there is some good news. Last year the Department of Justice reported that the number of substantiated cases of child sexual abuse has been decreasing, from a peak of nearly 150,000 in 1992 to about 104,000 in 1998–a drop of almost one-third. The authors say vigorous incarceration of offenders over the past few years may be partly responsible.

But if we have punished our way out of the problem somewhat, we still don’t have a long-term solution. Many people assume that not only priests but also teachers, Boy Scout leaders and other adults who work with kids are responsible for most child sexual abuse, but that’s a misconception. Half of child sexual abusers are the parents of the victims; other relatives commit 18% of the offenses. And the sad truth is that preventing incest is nearly impossible. Less than one-third of perpetrators know their victims from outside the home. But non-family abusers may be easier to pick out–many are adults who shower uncommon attention on children–and thus easier to stop.

Although news reports focus on horrific serial offenders, experts say it’s possible, with treatment, to prevent pedophiles from abusing kids. States have incarcerated many child sexual abusers, but most eventually get out (average sentence: 11 years). Active pedophiles who find their way into the few treatment programs around the country turn out to be less of a risk than those who are locked up for a while and released.

Berlin runs one of the largest such programs in the nation. Since 1991 hundreds of pedophiles have gone to the creaky Victorian building that houses his clinic. Berlin sees their condition as similar to alcoholism–incurable but treatable–and some of his methods sound similar to those of Alcoholics Anonymous. The pedophiles must admit their urges and confront them in group therapy. Counselors help them restructure their lives so that they don’t come into contact with children. Berlin prescribes medication to reduce sex drives for the 30% of his patients who don’t respond to nondrug therapy.

There is nothing new or scientifically subtle about these drugs: they squash testosterone levels and therefore suppress sexual hunger. (High, long-term doses of the drugs are known as “chemical castration,” a misnomer because sex drive returns if the injections stop.) But together, drugs and counseling can be effective. Contrary to popular perception, a raft of studies has shown that once in treatment, few pedophiles relapse. In 1991 the American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry published a study of 400 of Berlin’s patients; only 1.2% of those who had complied with his 2 1/2-year treatment were known to have molested kids again three years after finishing the course. Surprisingly, only 5.6% of those who were discharged for noncompliance offended in that period. Similarly, a 2002 study by St. Luke Institute, a psychiatric hospital outside Washington, followed 121 priests for one to five years and found that after treatment only three had relapsed, according to the Rev. Stephen Rossetti, who runs St. Luke. “People don’t grow up and say, ‘I want to be a pedophile,'” says Rossetti. “All the people I’ve ever talked to hate it.”

Other studies that look back over longer periods–five to 10 years–find higher percentages of pedophiles who strike again, as high as 58% for those who refuse treatment. Such disparities highlight how uncertain the study of pedophilia is, but even the higher figure belies the popular notion that if a pedophile is allowed to go free, he will almost always molest again. “It’s very easy to say, ‘Throw away the key,'” says Berlin. “But many of these people are tortured by these temptations, and they are relieved that we can do something for them.”

Few pedophiles get this help, as Berlin is one of only a dozen or so doctors who run such clinics in North America. “We don’t have Betty Ford centers for people with sexual disorders,” he says. Instead, a 1996 federal law requires sex offenders to register with state authorities. When an offender is released from prison, the state can (and often does) notify neighbors. It’s unclear whether the legislation is preventing abuse.

One difficulty in treating pedophiles is that we know little about their condition. Could people become pedophiles because they were sexually victimized as kids? That theory makes common sense, but only one-third of pedophiles say they were abused. Could pedophilia be a brain disease? Bradford of the University of Ottawa says studies of pedophiles’ brains have shown differences in the way they react to changes in hormone levels, but he says the research is in its earliest stages. Other scientists have posited several risk factors that can lead to pedophilia, including chromosomal abnormalities, psychological problems during puberty and even being brothers: The Journal of Psychology in 2000 reported that “a gap of several years between brothers might deprive the pedophile of companionship in formative years of sexual behavior development.”

But such ideas are still guesswork. “If we really want to understand these people and develop good ways to prevent pedophilia, we need a national demographic survey,” says Berlin. “The funding is minuscule, so the research is incomplete.” And politically fraught. Everyone who works in the field constantly negotiates America’s discomfort with children and sex. Yet understanding child sexual abuse means not only exploring its prevalence, causes and treatments–issues that focus on the abuser–but finding the best way to help victims cope as well. And that research is positively radioactive.

Consider the most basic question of such inquiry: What constitutes a victim of child sexual abuse? By definition, pedophiles prey on the prepubescent. No one would seriously argue that a 6- or even 10-year-old can meaningfully consent to sex. But what about those 12 and older, who make up nearly half of all juvenile sex-abuse victims? The states define the age of consent for sex differently. Most say it is 16, but some say 18. In Hawaii, it’s 14. So are teenagers from the onset of puberty (usually about 13) to the age of sexual majority (usually 16) always victims when they have sex with someone older?

Legally speaking, as the differences in legal adulthood indicate, the younger partners are not always treated as victims. Even in states where the age of consent is 18, prosecutors rarely go after, say, a 23-year-old for sleeping with a 17-year-old. Given that up to half of teens say they have had sex while a minor, “millions of statutory-rape cases occur every day,” says Michelle Oberman, a DePaul University rape-law specialist.

Different cultures have different views on whether adult-adolescent sex is always wrong. In the Netherlands, the law allows children ages 12 to 16 to make their own decision about sex, though if Mom and Dad feel a relationship is exploitative, they can ask the authorities to investigate. Most Americans would find such a law abhorrent. Recently, the University of Minnesota initiated an unusual review of its university press after it published a book that calls the Dutch law “a good model.” Judith Levine’s Harmful to Minors: The Perils of Protecting Children from Sex, scheduled to arrive in bookstores this month, asserts that “teens often seek out sex with older people … For some teens, a romance with an older person can feel more like salvation than victimization.”

Source : time




Pedophilia (or paedophilia) is a psychological disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a sexual preference for prepubescent children. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), pedophilia is specified as a form of paraphilia in which a person either has intense sexual urges towards children, and experiences recurrent sexual urges towards and fantasies about children that they have either acted on, or cause distress or interpersonal difficulty. The diagnosis can be made under the DSM or ICD criteria for persons age 16 and older. The disorder is common among people who commit child sexual abuse; however, some offenders do not meet the clinical diagnosis standards for pedophilia.[8] In strictly behavioral contexts, the word “pedophilia” has been used to refer to child sexual abuse itself, also called “pedophilic behavior”.

In law enforcement, the term “pedophile” is loosely used without formal definition to describe those convicted of child sexual abuse or the sexual abuse of a minor, including both prepubescent children and pubescent or post-pubescent adolescents. An example of this use can be seen in various forensic training manuals. Researchers recommend that this imprecise use be avoided. In common usage, the term refers to any adult who is sexually attracted to young children or who sexually abuses a child or adolescent minor.

The causes of pedophilia are not known; research is ongoing.] Most pedophiles are men, though there are also women who are pedophiles. Due to the stereotype that pedophiles are always male, it has been difficult to determine the prevalence of female pedophiles; however, studies in the United Kingdom and United States suggest that a range of 5% to 20% of child sexual abuse offenses are perpetrated by women.

In forensic psychology and law enforcement, there have been a variety of typologies suggested to categorize pedophiles according to behavior and motivations. No significant curative treatment for pedophilia has yet been found. There are, however, certain therapies that can reduce the incidence of pedophilic behaviors that result in child sexual abuse.

Etymology and history

The word comes from the Greek: παιδοφιλία (paidophilia): παῖς (pais), “child” and φιλία (philia), “friendship”. Paidophilia was coined by Greek poets either as a substitute for “paiderastia” (pederasty),[22] or vice versa.

The term paedophilia erotica was coined in 1886 by the Viennese psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in his writing Psychopathia Sexualis.[23] The term appears in a section titled “Violation of Individuals Under the Age of Fourteen,” which focuses on the forensic psychiatry aspect of Child Sexual Offenders in general. Krafft-Ebing describes several typologies of offender, dividing them into psychopathological and non-psychopathological origins, and hypothesizes several apparent causal factors that may lead to the sexual abuse of children.

After listing several typologies of sexual offender, Krafft-Ebing then mentioned one final typology, which he refers to as a “psycho-sexual perversion”: paedophilia erotica. He noted that he had only encountered it four times in his career and gave brief descriptions of each case, as well as noting they all have three traits in common:

Their attraction is persistent (Krafft-Ebing refers to this as being “tainted”)

The subject’s primary attraction is to children, rather than adults.

The acts committed by the subject are typically not intercourse, but rather involve inappropriate touching or manipulating the child into performing an act on the subject.

It is notable that this work also indicates several cases of pedophilia among adult women (provided by another physician), and also considered the abuse of boys by homosexual men to be extremely rare. Further clarifying this point, he indicated that cases of adult men who have some medical or neurological disorder and abuse a male child are not true pedophilia, and that in his observation victims of such men tended to be older and pubescent. He also lists “Pseudopaedophilia” as a related condition wherein “individuals who have lost libido for the adult through masturbation and subsequently turn to children for the gratification of their sexual appetite” and claimed this is much more common.

In 1908, Swiss neuroanatomist and psychiatrist Auguste Forel wrote of the phenomenon, proposing that it be referred to it as “Pederosis,” the “Sexual Appetite for Children.” Similar to Krafft-Ebing’s work, Forel made the distinction between incidental sexual abuse by person’s with dementia and other organic brain conditions, and the truly preferential and sometimes exclusive sexual desire for children. However, he disagreed with Krafft-Ebing in that he felt the condition of the latter was largely ingrained and unchangeable.

The term “Pedophilia” became the generally accepted term for the condition and saw widespread adoption in the early 20th century, appearing in many popular medical dictionaries such as the 5th Edition of Stedman’s. In 1952, it was included in the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders This edition and the subsequent DSM-II listed the disorder as one subtype of the classification “Sexual Deviation,” but no diagnostic criteria were provided. The DSM-III, published in 1980, contained a full description of the disorder and provided a set of guidelines for diagnosis. The revision in 1987, the DSM-III-R, kept the description largely the same, but updated and expanded the diagnostic criteria.


The ICD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) (F65.4) defines pedophilia as “a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal age.”[1] Under this system’s criteria, a person 16 years of age or older meets the definition if they have a persistent or predominant sexual preference for prepubescent children at least five years younger than them.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) outlines specific criteria for use in the diagnosis of this disorder. These include the presence of sexually arousing fantasies, behaviors or urges that involve some kind of sexual activity with a prepubescent child (often aged 13 or younger) for six months or more, and that the subject has acted on these urges or suffers from distress as a result of having these feelings. The criteria also indicate that the subject should be 16 or older and that child or children they fantasize about are at least five years younger than them, though ongoing sexual relationships between a 12-13 year old and a late adolescent are advised to be excluded. A diagnosis is further specified by the sex of the children the person is attracted to, if the impulses or acts are limited to incest, and if the attraction is “exclusive” or “nonexclusive”.

Exclusive pedophiles are attracted to children, and children only. They show little erotic interest in adults their own age and in some cases, can only become aroused while fantasizing or being in the presence of prepubescent children. Nonexclusive pedophiles are attracted to both children and adults, and can be sexually aroused by both. According to a U.S. study on 2429 adult male pedophile sex offenders, only 7% identified themselves as exclusive; indicating that many or most pedophiles fall into the nonexclusive category.[7] Some systems further differentiate types of offender in more specific categories (see Child Sexual Offender Types).

Neither the ICD nor the DSM diagnostic criteria require actual sexual activity with a prepubescent youth. The diagnosis can therefore be made based on the presence of fantasies or sexual urges even if they have never been acted upon. On the other hand, a person who acts upon these urges yet experiences no distress about their fantasies or urges can also qualify for the diagnosis. Acting on sexual urges is not limited to overt sex acts for purposes of this diagnosis, and can sometimes include indecent exposure, voyeuristic or frotteuristic behaviors, or masturbating to child pornography. Often these behaviors need to be considered in-context with an element of clinical judgment before a diagnosis is made. Likewise, when the patient is in late adolescence, the age difference is not specified in hard numbers and instead requires careful consideration of the situation.[29]

Nepiophilia, also called infantophilia, is used to refer to a sexual preference for toddlers and infants (usually ages 0–3).[30]

Ego-dystonic sexual orientation (F66.1) includes people who do not doubt that they have a prepubertal sexual preference, but wish it were different because of associated psychological and behavioral disorders. The WHO allows for the patient to seek treatment to change their sexual orientation.

Biological associations

Beginning in 2002, researchers began reporting a series of findings linking pedophilia with brain structure and function: Pedophilic (and hebephilic) men have lower IQs, poorer scores on memory tests, greater rates of non-right-handedness, greater rates of school grade failure over and above the IQ differences, lesser physical height, greater probability of having suffered childhood head injuries resulting in unconsciousness and several differences in MRI-detected brain structures. They report that their findings suggest that there are one or more neurological characteristics present at birth that cause or increase the likelihood of being pedophilic. Evidence of familial transmittability “suggests, but does not prove that genetic factors are responsible” for the development of pedophilia.

Another study, using structural MRI, shows that male pedophiles have a lower volume of white matter than a control group.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that child molesters diagnosed with pedophilia have reduced activation of the hypothalamus as compared with non-pedophilic persons when viewing sexually arousing pictures of adults.[43] A 2008 functional neuroimaging study notes that central processing of sexual stimuli in heterosexual “paedophile forensic inpatients” may be altered by a disturbance in the prefrontal networks, which “may be associated with stimulus-controlled behaviours, such as sexual compulsive behaviours.” The findings may also suggest “a dysfunction at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing.”

Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud (2006) reviewed the research that attempted to identify hormonal aspects of pedophiles. They concluded that there is some evidence that pedophilic men have less testosterone than controls, but that the research is of poor quality and that it is difficult to draw any firm conclusion from it.

While not causes of pedophilia themselves, comorbid psychiatric illnesses — such as personality disorders and substance abuse — are risk factors for acting on pedophilic urges. Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud (2006) noted about comorbid psychiatric illnesses that, “The theoretical implications are not so clear. Do particular genes or noxious factors in the prenatal environment predispose a male to develop both affective disorders and pedophilia, or do the frustration, danger, and isolation engendered by unacceptable sexual desires—or their occasional furtive satisfaction—lead to anxiety and despair?”They indicated that, because they previously found mothers of pedophiles to be more likely to have undergone psychiatric treatment, the genetic possibility is more likely.

Psychopathology and personality traits

Several researchers have reported correlations between pedophilia and certain psychological characteristics, such as low self-esteem[46][47] and poor social skills.[48] Cohen et al. (2002), studying child sex offenders, states that pedophiles have impaired interpersonal functioning and elevated passive-aggressiveness, as well as impaired self-concept. Regarding disinhibitory traits, pedophiles demonstrate elevated sociopathy and propensity for cognitive distortions. According to the authors, pathologic personality traits in pedophiles lend support to a hypothesis that such pathology is related to both motivation for and failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior.

According to Wilson and Cox (1983), “The paedophiles emerge as significantly higher on Psychoticism, Introversion and Neurotocism than age-matched controls. [But] there is a difficulty in untangling cause and effect. We cannot tell whether paedophiles gravitate towards children because, being highly introverted, they find the company of children less threatening than that of adults, or whether the social withdrawal implied by their introversion is a result of the isloation engendered by their preference (i.e., awareness of the social approbation and hostility that it evokes”

Studying child sex offenders, a review of qualitative research studies published between 1982 and 2001 concluded that pedophiles use cognitive distortions to meet personal needs, justifying abuse by making excuses, redefining their actions as love and mutuality, and exploiting the power imbalance inherent in all adult-child relationships. Other cognitive distortions include the idea of “children as sexual beings,” “uncontrollability of sexuality,” and “sexual entitlement-bias.”

One review of the literature concludes that research on personality correlates and psychopathology in pedophiles is rarely methodologically correct, in part owing to confusion between pedophiles and child sex offenders, as well as the difficulty of obtaining a representative, community sample of pedophiles.[53] Seto (2004) points out that pedophiles who are available from a clinical setting are likely there because of distress over their sexual preference or pressure from others. This increases the likelihood that they will show psychological problems. Similarly, pedophiles recruited from a correctional setting have been convicted of a crime, making it more likely that they will show anti-social characteristics.

Prevalence and child molestation

The prevalence of pedophilia in the general population is not known,[54] and research is highly variable owing to varying definitions and criteria. The term pedophile is commonly used to describe all child sexual abuse offenders, including those who do not meet the clinical diagnosis standards. This use is seen as problematic by some people.[8] Some researchers, such as Howard E. Barbaree,[55] have endorsed the use of actions as a sole criterion for the diagnosis of pedophilia as a means of taxonomic simplification, rebuking the American Psychiatric Association’s standards as “unsatisfactory”.

A perpetrator of child sexual abuse is commonly assumed to be and referred to as a pedophile; however, there may be other motivations for the crime[55] (such as stress, marital problems, or the unavailability of an adult partner).[56] Child sexual abuse may or may not be an indicator that its perpetrator is a pedophile. Many terms have been used to distinguish “true pedophiles” from nonpedophilic offenders, or to distinguish among types of offenders on a continuum according to strength and exclusivity of pedophilic interest, and motivation for the offense (see Child Sexual Offender Types).

Perpetrators who meet the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia offend more often than non-pedophile perpetrators, and with a greater number of victims. According to the Mayo Clinic, approximately 95% of child sexual abuse incidents are committed by the 88% of child molestation offenders who meet the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia.[7] A behavioral analysis report by the FBI states that a “high percentage of acquaintance child molesters are preferential sex offenders who have a true sexual preference for children (i.e., pedophiles).”

A review article in the British Journal of Psychiatry notes the overlap between extrafamilial and intrafamilial offenders. One study found that around half of the fathers and stepfathers in its sample who were referred for committing extrafamilial abuse had also been abusing their own children.

As noted by Abel, Mittleman, and Becker[58] (1985) and Ward et al. (1995), there are generally large distinctions between the two types of offenders’ characteristics. Situational offenders tend to offend at times of stress; have a later onset of offending; have fewer, often familial victims; and have a general preference for adult partners. Pedophilic offenders, however, often start offending at an early age; often have a large number of victims who are frequently extrafamilial; are more inwardly driven to offend; and have values or beliefs that strongly support an offense lifestyle. Research suggests that incest offenders recidivate at approximately half the rate of extrafamilial child molesters, and one study estimated that by the time of entry to treatment, nonincestuous pedophiles who molest boys had committed an average of 282 offenses against 150 victims.

Some child molesters — pedophilic or not — threaten their victims to stop them from reporting their actions.[3] Others, like those that often victimize children, can develop complex ways of getting access to children, like gaining the trust of a child’s parent, trading children with other pedophiles or, infrequently, get foster children from non-industrialized nations or abduct child victims from strangers.[3] Pedophiles may often act interested in the child, to gain the child’s interest, loyalty and affection to keep the child from letting others know about the abuse.


Although pedophilia has yet no cure, various treatments are available that are aimed at reducing or preventing the expression of pedophilic behavior, reducing the prevalence of child sexual abuse. Treatment of pedophilia often requires collaboration between law enforcement and health care professionals. A number of proposed treatment techniques for pedophilia have been developed, though the success rate of these therapies has been very low.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (“relapse prevention”)

Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to reduce recidivism in contact sex offenders.

According to Canadian sexologist Michael Seto, cognitive-behavioral treatments target attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are believed to increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children, and “relapse prevention” is the most common type of cognitive-behavioral treatment. The techniques of relapse prevention are based on principles used for treating addictions. Other scientists have also done some research that indicates that recidivism rates of pedophiles in therapy are lower than pedophiles who eschew therapy, says Dr. Zonana.

Behavioral interventions

Behavioral treatments target sexual arousal to children, using satiation and aversion techniques to suppress sexual arousal to children and covert sensitization (or masturbatory reconditioning) to increase sexual arousal to adults.[63] Behavioral treatments appear to have an effect on sexual arousal patterns on phallometric testing, but it is not known whether the test changes represent changes in sexual interests or changes in the ability to control genital arousal during testing.

Applied behavior analysis has been applied with sex offenders with mental disabilities.

Pharmacological interventions

Medications are used to lower sex drive in pedophiles by interfering with the activity of testosterone, such as with Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate), Androcur (cyproterone acetate), and Lupron (leuprolide acetate).

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, which last longer and have fewer side-effects, are also effective in reducing libido and may be used.

These treatments, commonly referred to as “chemical castration”, are often used in conjunction with the non-medical approaches noted above. According the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, “Anti-androgen treatment should be coupled with appropriate monitoring and counseling within a comprehensive treatment plan.”

In a controlled Depo-Provera treatment study of 40 sex offenders — including 23 pedophiles — who received Depo-Provera, and 21 sex offenders who received psychotherapy alone, the outcome follow-up of the treated group as compared to the untreated group demonstrated that the reoffense rate for the Depo-Provera-treated group was significantly lower. Eighteen percent reoffended while receiving medication; 35 percent reoffended after stopping medication. In contrast, 58 percent of the control patients, who received psychotherapy alone, reoffended. Patients defined as regressed were much more likely to reoffend off therapy than the patients defined as fixated.

Other therapies

Klaus M. Beier of the Institute of Sexology and Sexual Medicine at Charité, a university hospital in Berlin, reported success in a preliminary study using role-play therapy and “impulse-curbing drugs” to help pedophiles avoid sexually assaulting a child. According to researchers, contact child sex offenders were better able to control their urges once they understood the prepubescent youth’s view.

Limitations of treatment

Although these results are relevant to the prevention of reoffending in contact child sex offenders, there is no empirical suggestion that such therapy is a cure for pedophilia. Dr. Fred Berlin, founder of the Johns Hopkins Sexual Disorders Clinic, believes that pedophilia could be successfully treated if the medical community would give it more attention.

Legal and social issues

Misuse of terminology

The words “pedophile” and “pedophilia” are frequently misused to refer to situations in which an older person has sexual relations with a person who is below the legal age of consent, but is pubescent or post-pubescent . The terms “hebephilia” or “ephebophilia” may be more accurate in these cases,[16] but even then may be erroneously used to refer to the actus reus itself, rather than the correct meaning, which is a preference for that age group on the part of the older individual. Even more problematic are situations where the terms are misused to refer to relationships where the younger person is an adult of legal age, but is either perceived socially as being too young in comparison to their older partner, or the older partner occupies a position of authority over them.

Pedophile activism

During the late 1950s to early 1990s, several pedophile membership organizations advocated age of consent reform to lower or abolish age of consent laws, and for the acceptance of pedophilia as a sexual orientation rather than a psychological disorder,[80] and the legalization of child pornography. The efforts of pedophile advocacy groups did not gain any public support[76][79][81][82][83] and today those few groups that have not dissolved have only minimal membership and have ceased their activities other than through a few websites.

Anti-pedophile activism

Main article: Anti-pedophile activism

Anti-pedophile activism encompasses opposition against pedophiles, against pedophile advocacy groups, and against other phenomena that are seen as related to pedophilia, such as child pornography and child sexual abuse.[86] Much of the direct action classified as anti-pedophile involves demonstrations against sex offenders, groups advocating legalization of sexual activity between adults and children,[88] and internet users who solicit sex from teens.

Moral panic and vigilantism

In the 1990s and 2000s, there have been several moral panics related to misuse of the term “pedophile” with regards to unusual crimes of abuse such as high-profile cases of child abduction and murder,[89] and popular press reports of ideas such as stranger danger, satanic ritual abuse and the day care sex abuse hysteria. There has been vigilatism directed against convicted or publicly suspected child sex offenders such as the mob violence resulting from the News of the World “naming and shaming” campaign in the UK in the early 2000s.

Diperkirakan 40 ribu hingga 70 ribu anak Indonesia telah menjadi korban eksploitasi seksual komersil anak

Diperkirakan 40 ribu hingga 70 ribu anak Indonesia telah menjadi korban eksploitasi seksual komersil anak (ESKA), yang sebagian besar dipaksa melalui perdagangan seks dan terbanyak di Bali.

“Data UNICEF menyebutkan pada tahun 1998 di Indonesia, sekitar 30 persen pelaku kegiatan prostitusi adalah anak berusia di bawah 18 tahun dan ada yang umur 10 tahun,” kata Direktur Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, Bakri, di Medan, Kamis.

Dia berbicara pada “Sosialisasi Kampanye Pencegahan ESKA di Lingkungan Pariwisata” yang dihadiri berbagai kalangan.

Menurut data, katanya, kasus ESKA terbanyak di Bali, Batam, dan Nusa Tenggara Barat.

“Medan juga tergolong banyak di mana praktik ESKA pada umumnya berlangsung di pusat-pusat prostitusi dan usaha pariwisata,” katanya.

Di Medan, daerah asal ESKA dari Aceh, Batam, Pulau Jawa dengan daerah tujuan antara lain Malaysia dan Singapura.

ESKA perlu ditekan bahkan dihapuskan dan itu memerlukan keperdulian seluruh kalangan, khsusnya pelaku industri pariwisata mengingat tumbuh suburnya ESKA itu bisa membuat citra negatif pariwisata baik di dalam maupun luar negeri.

Dampak lain yang cukup merisaukan adalah banyaknya anak menderita secara sosial, ekonomi dan psikologi dan terjangkit penyakit HIV/AIDS.

Diakui sebagian besar ESKA merupakan akibat tekanan ekonomi, sulitnya memperoleh lapangan kerja serta kurangnya kesadaran dan kontrol sosial di lingkugan masyarakat.

Kepala Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Sumut, Nurlisa Ginting, mengatakan, Pemprov Sumut sudah melakukan berbagai kebijakan untuk menanggulangi ESKA, antara lain dengan mengeluarkan Perda No 5 Tahun 2004 tentang Pencegahan dan Penanggulangan Bentuk-Bentuk Pekerjaan Terburuk Bagi Anak.

Lalu ada Perda No 6 tahun 2004, tentang Penghapusan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak serta Peraturan Gubernur N0 24 tahun 2005 tentang Rencana Aksi Provinsi Penghapusan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak, sera pembentukan Gugus Tugas Provinsi Penghapusan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak.

Dia mengakui, kasus ESKA terus bermunculan karena faktor yang mempengaruhi seperti kemiskinan belum dapat teratasi dan Pemprov Sumut terus berupaya menekan angka kemiskinan itu.

ESKA juga masih sulit ditekan, karena meningkatnya pekerja ke luar negeri dan latar belakang atau modus prostitusi yang berubah seperti modus baru “Biro Jodoh”.

Kondisi geografis Sumut yang merupakan daerah transit juga mempermudah timbulnya sindikat perdagangan orang



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Foundation and Editor in Chief

Dr Widodo Judarwanto


Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved.

WHAT IT IS ? Children sexual abuse ?


Provided by

Yudhasmara Foundation


Phone : 62(021) 70081995 – 5703646

email :,


Foundation and Editor in Chief

Dr Widodo Judarwanto


Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved.

DSM-IV-TR criteria of Paraphilia

DSM-IV-TR criteria include the following:

  • Exhibitionism
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors that involve exposing their genitals to unsuspecting strangers.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • Exhibitionism typically involves men exposing themselves to women (not a DSM-IV-TR criterion).
  • Fetishism
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving nonliving objects.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • Patients do not limit the fetish objects to articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing or to devices designated for the purpose of tactile genital stimulation.
    • Patients may have a particular pathological displacement of erotic interest and satisfaction for their entire lives (not a DSM-IV-TR criterion).
  • Frotteurism
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving rubbing against and touching a nonconsenting person.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • Patients typically practice this behavior in crowded places (not a DSM-IV-TR criterion).
  • Pedophilia
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • The patient must be aged 16 years or older and at least 5 years older than the child or children involved.
  • Sexual masochism
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • This variant is named for the activities of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch (not part of the DSM-IV-TR criterion). Sacher-Masoch was born in Lemberg, Austria in 1836. As an author he is most known for his book Venus in Furs. This writing is reportedly based on true events from his life.
      • Sacher-Masoch’s novel is said to be one long masochistic fantasy in which the principle male character desires and encourages his mistress to treat him as a slave. This story appears to parallel his relationship with his wife. He used to plead with her to treat him as a slave, and his outlandish requests would progressively become more demeaning to satisfy his sexual appetite. However, she was not interested in partaking in his deviant self-deprecating fantasies. Eventually they met other partners and parted ways.
      • Leopold von Sacher-Masoch was the eldest son of a couple in the town of Galacia, where his father was the Director of Police and his mother was a little Russian lady of noble birth. As an infant, Leopold was very frail and sickly, and not expected to survive. To increase the infant’s chances of survival, his parents hired a robust Russian wet nurse who was able to nurse him back to health. Leopold later spoke of the strong bond between the 2 of them. The woman shared strange and melancholy legends about her people with the boy, and he formed a love of the Russians that remained constant throughout his life. He reportedly said that not only did he gain his health from her, but also his soul.
      • As a child, Leopold was fascinated by various representations of cruelty. He was especially drawn to pictures of executions, and some of his favorite reading materials pertained to legends of martyrs. At the onset of puberty, he had a recurring dream that he was under the power of a cruel and torturous woman. The term dream is used in this context as opposed to nightmare.
      • In the town of Galacia, where Leopold was born, women were said to either rule their husbands or vice versa. At the age of 10, the boy witnessed a sadistic scene that left a permanent impression. The scene involved a female relative from his father’s side of the family. This woman was referred to as Countess X. Prior to Leopold witnessing the life-altering event, he was enamored by the Countess and was impressed by her beauty and costly furs. He used to help her with various duties, services, etc. On one occasion, as he was putting on her shoes, he bent down to kiss her feet and she smiled at him and then kicked him. Instead of being hurt, he experienced a perverse sensation of pleasure.
      • Sometime after this event, he witnessed the Countess and her lover caught in the act by her husband and 2 of his friends. The Count, who was obviously stunned, paused momentarily to plot his course of revenge.  In the meantime, the Countess beat all 3 men to a bloody pulp. Leopold had been hiding in the room throughout the encounter, and was discovered by the Countess after gasping in astonishment. Upon discovery, she beat him as well. He made his way out of the room, but was still right outside the door watching should anything else occur. Moments later, the boy witnessed the Count, back in the same room where he had been humiliated earlier, begging for her forgiveness. The Countess looked at her husband and with that same calculating smile, all too familiar to Leopold, gave him a big swift kick.
  • Sexual sadists
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the acts in which psychological or physical suffering of the victim is sexually exciting to the patient.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • This variant is named for the activities of the Marquis de Sade (not part of the DSM-IV-TR criterion).
      • The Marquis de Sade was born in Paris, France on June 2, 1740 and died on December 2, 1814 in Charenton, France. His full name was Donatein Alphonse Francois comte de Sade. The term sadism is a derivative of his name. The Marquis was an aristocrat and an author of violent pornography. The French author’s erotic books, mainly written while imprisoned, include Justine, Juliette, and 120 Days of Sodom. The Marquis de Sade regarded criminal/sexually deviant acts as being natural, which was apparent in both his writings and actions. Consequently, his novels were banned into the 20th century.
      • The Marquis de Sade’s life consisted of numerous acts of cruelty, which were indicative of his total disregard for human life and the law. His acts of extremely violent physical and sexual abuse resulted in numerous imprisonments and consequent escapes. He was also declared insane and admitted to an insane asylum on 2 different occasions. The Marquis was imprisoned or committed to insane asylums for at least 32 years of his life.  Most victims of Marquis were young female prostitutes, as well as both male and female employees of his chateau.
      • Donatein’s mother was a distant cousin to the Prince de Conde, a junior branch of the royal Bourbon family. She served as a lady in waiting to the Princess de Conde and was a governess to her son, the young Prince de Conde. An early account of Donatein’s violent nature involved an altercation between he and his young cousin over a toy. When the young Prince tried to retrieve one of his favorite toys from the grasp of his 4-year-old cousin, Donatein pummeled his cousin with increasing blows of violence. Soon after this incident, the young Marquis was sent to live with his paternal grandmother in Avignon.
      • The troubled young boy spent his formative years in Avignon surrounded by female relatives who indulged his every need and enveloped him with sensual affection. Donatein’s grandmother and aunts continually doted on the child and indulged every one of his selfish demands. There was no mention of discipline in the boy’s upbringing. These actions were only detrimental to the child’s development; consequently, his behavior became increasingly unruly. When the Comte de Sade (Donatein’s father) received report of his son’s unconventional upbringing, the young Marquis was sent to live with his father’s brother. The Comte hoped that his brother, Abbe de Sade, would be able to provide a masculine presence and influence that was obviously lacking in Donatein’s life.
      • Abbe de Sade was a noted author, clergyman, and scholar of his time. He was also very much like his sisters in the sense that he enjoyed the sensual side of life and indulged himself with many pleasures. He was referred to as “sybarite of Saumane” meaning one inordinately attached to pleasure and luxury. Once again the young boy was in an atmosphere that encouraged sexuality and sensual indulgence as an expectation rather that an exception to the rule. During Donatein’s stay at his uncle’s home, the abbe housed many female companions which included a local prostitute.
      • Throughout this period of time in Europe, men and women of the cloth, indulged themselves in various sexual escapades with little remorse. There was rumor of orgies taking place in abbeys and convents, where priests, nuns, prostitutes, and nobles all engaged in debaucherous behavior. Abbe de Sade had a library filled with a genre of literature, and some were pornographic in nature. Donatein was free to read all of the literature in the library at his leisure. After becoming abreast of the ever present debauchery in Donatein’s life, his father moved him to Paris where he was enrolled in a Jesuit prep school for young men of nobility.
      • Donatein was quite young to have been uprooted so many times. He was 10 years old when he was enrolled at the prep school. Although the Jesuits had a remarkable reputation as educators, they were infamous for their practices involving sodomy and corporal punishment. The Jesuits would beat, whip, or flog the young boys in front of an assembled student body to humiliate them. The humility of the beatings, oddly enough, could also be sexually arousing. This practice came to be known as sado-masochistic behavior. As an adult, the Marquis de Sade was unable to be aroused by normal sex, so it appeared that his sexuality was arrested at the infantile anal stage.   
      • After 4 years with the Jesuits, Donatein was transferred to a military academy upon this father’s request. In 1755, shortly following his arrival, Donatein served in the King’s light cavalry regiment as a sub leutenant. He was only 15 years old at the time. The young Marquis served in the war and was considered a brave and decisive leader. Unsatisfied with Donatein’s success in the cavalry, his father had him placed with a cavalry company commanded by one of the members of the royal family. Donatein’s bravery, good looks, and social charm made him a very successful soldier. His superiors were quite impressed by the Marquis; therefore, he was promoted to captain at the young age of 18. Donatein seemed able to impress everyone but his own father. His father never praised his son for his many accomplishments, yet had no difficulty pointing out his shortcomings.
      • When the Marquis de Sade returned from the war in 1763, he had his sights set on a particular lady whom he wished to marry. However, his father was opposed to the union. Instead, he arranged for the Marquis to marry her elder sister, Renee-Pelagie de Montrieul. The couple had 3 children, 2 boys and a girl. 
      • The same year the couple was married, the Marquis de Sade frequently traveled away from home for “business” reasons. While away on his travels, he rented several different maisons around Paris where orgies were held. One particularly disturbing encounter took place between the Marquis and a young prostitute. After he was alone with her, he quizzed the young prostitute about her religious convictions regarding the Roman Catholic Church. When he discovered that she was a faithful Roman Catholic, he began degrading her with inconceivable vile insults. To the young woman’s horror, he proceeded to perform sexually explicit acts on her with the aid of religious objects that were extremely blasphemous and sacrilegious in nature. When the young prostitute refused his request to beat each other with a hot whip, he pleasured himself sexually with a pair of crucifixes. Then he held her at knife point, forcing her to repeat vulgarities in the most blasphemous manner. This resulted in the Marquis de Sade’s first imprisonment; however, his lewd and debaucherous behavior would result in numerous other imprisonments during his lifetime. He died in 1814 and was buried in Charenton. Later his skull was removed from the grave for phrenological examination.
      • The Marquis de Sade’s life was not an ordinary one. From early on, he was rejected by his parents and moved from one place to another. The Marquis would never gain his father’s approval, no matter how hard he worked. His life lacked structure, appropriate discipline, balance, and unconditional love/approval. The young Marquis was exposed to complete self-indulgent behavior lacking any form of discipline while raised by his grandmother, aunts, and uncle. Then he was exposed to extreme corporal punishment while attending prep school with the Jesuits. He was also exposed to deviant sexual behavior in both of these very different settings.  
      • In theory, one might postulate that exposure to these extreme polarities of behavior, especially during the very crucial formative years, might cause the underdeveloped psyche to integrate the 2. Therefore associating pleasure with pain, hence the deviant masochistic behavior.       
  • Transvestic fetishism
    • Over a period of 6 months, heterosexual male patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • Typically, patients derive sexual gratification from wearing clothes usually worn by the opposite sex, and patients typically are heterosexual married males (not a DSM-IV-TR criterion).
  • Voyeurism
    • Over a period of at least 6 months, patients have recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act of observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, in the process of disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity.
    • The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
    • Patients derive sexual gratification from seeing sex organs and sexual acts; scopophilia is a synonym for voyeurism (not a DSM-IV-TR criterion).
  • Paraphilia not otherwise specified: This category is included so physicians can code paraphilias that do not meet the criteria for any of the other specific categories.
    • Scatologia involves making obscene phone calls.
    • Necrophilia involves an erotic attraction or sexual interest in corpses. This paraphilia is rare and seldom reported to the police. Patients typically work in mortuaries and funeral parlors. This also involves dangerous situations where the individual could actually acquire infections from the corpse.
    • Partialism is sexual interest exclusively focused on a particular body part.
    • Zoophilia involves sexual activity with animals (ie, both actual sexual contact and sexual fantasies, higher in psychiatric patients).
    • Coprophilia is sexual activity involving feces.
    • Klismaphilia is sexual activity involving enemas.
    • Urophilia is sexual activity involving urine.
    • Masturbation is sexual self-gratification.
  • Other paraphilias
    • Autogynephilia describes a man’s propensity to be sexually aroused by thoughts or images of himself as a woman (with female attributes).
    • Asphyxiophilia or hypoxyphilia is when a patient uses hypoxia to achieve sexual excitement; this can be complicated by autoerotic asphyxiation.
    • Video voyeurs derive sexual gratification from videos, usually of women doing natural acts or women involved in sexual activity.
    • Infantophilia is a new subcategory of pedophilia in which the victims are younger than 5 years.



Provided by


Yudhasmara Foundation


PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646

email :,

Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved 

Provided by


Yudhasmara Foundation


PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646

email :,

Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved


Paraphilia is a rare disorder, and the best criteria for diagnosis come from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)1 or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The disorder is characterized by a 6-month period of recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies or sexual urges involving a specific act, depending on the paraphilia.

Paraphilia is a means for some people to release sexual energy or frustration. The act commonly is followed by arousal and orgasm, usually achieved by masturbation and fantasy. These disorders are not well recognized and often are difficult to treat for several reasons. Often, people who have these disorders conceal them, experience guilt and shame, have financial or legal problems, and can (at times) be uncooperative with medical professionals.

Some psychiatrists discuss whether paraphilias are a part of the impulse control disorders or if they fall within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders. The more common paraphilias include voyeurism and frotteurism, and the most rare paraphilia is zoophilia. In this age of computer technology, individuals can easily access information about paraphilias from any computer, thus fueling a disorder that already is difficult to control.



Many theories exist regarding the etiology of paraphilias, including psychoanalytical, biological, and sociobiological theories; however, none are conclusive. This subject requires additional research.

Psychoanalytical Theory

According to psychoanalytical theory, several possible factors may contribute to the origin of paraphilias. Freud and his colleagues suggested that some paraphilias may be attributed to possible distortion of the courtship phases. Normal courtship behavior is what brings males and females together for the purpose of mating. It usually occurs during adolescence and may or may not involve sexual intercourse at this early stage of sexual development. Courtship is composed of 4 definitive phases. 

  1. Location of a potential partner – The initial phase of courtship 
  2. Pretactile interaction – Talking or flirting with a potential partner 
  3. Tactile interaction – Usually consists of touching, hugging, hand holding, etc (This could also be considered foreplay.) 
  4. Effecting genital union – More commonly known as sexual intercourse 

According to this particular literature, distortions of the courtship behaviors are only associated with the first 3 phases.   

Although most of the population are able to appropriately engage in these 4 phases of interaction, other people are unable to adhere to these socially acceptable norms. Freud and his colleagues have indicated that certain deviant or unconventional sexual practices can be viewed as exaggerations of the 4 phases of courtship. Based on Freud’s research with incarcerated sex offenders, one distortion of courtship behavior may result in others.

Certain paraphilias are associated with distortions of courtship behaviors. 

  • Voyeurism: This is the distorted view of the initial courtship phase. Normally the initial courtship phase is known as locating a potential partner. Psychoanalysts postulate that voyeurism may be attributed to a child witnessing episodes of his or her parents engaged in sexual intercourse. Individuals with maladaptive social and sexual skills find voyeurism as an outlet for sexual pleasure void of the threat of sexual interaction. The risk or danger of discovery may likely give the voyeur a false sense of masculinity, this behavior tends to be similar for the exhibitionist as well. 
  • Exhibitionism: Psychoanalysts consider exhibitionism a distortion of the pretactile interaction of the courtship phase. Psychoanalytical theory is based on the theory that gender identity for little boys requires psychological separation from the mother, so that he will not identify with her as a member of the same sex as do little girls. Exhibitionists regard their mothers as rejecting them on the basis of their different genitalia. The act of exhibitionism forces women to accept them by forcing them to look at their genitals. The act of self-exposure is also a way for the exhibitionist to compensate for his introversion and lack of assertiveness. The act of exposing oneself may give the exhibitionist a false sense of power, and the danger of discovery may further reinforce this feeling. In general, psychoanalysts theorize that the act of an exhibitionist displaying his penis is a way of proving his manhood to the world, but more importantly to an adult woman. Narcissism, the extreme form of self-admiration, is also believed to contribute to exhibitionism. Many of these men are married and have regular sexual contact with their spouse. However, in the mind of the exhibitionist/narcissist, by receiving only his wife’s admiration of his genitalia is not sufficient in feeding his endless secondary narcissistic supply. Therefore, this leads to his search for other unsuspecting victims to fulfill his insatiable need for admiration. The exhibitionist is sometimes compared to an actor on stage who desires an audience, but does not want to participate in the act.
  • Toucherism and frotteurism: These are considered exaggerations of the tactile interaction of the courtship phase. These paraphilias provide a sexual outlet without the risk of rejection. Toucherism tends to occur in conjunction with other paraphilias.


Provided by


Yudhasmara Foundation


PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646

email :,

Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved 

Provided by


Yudhasmara Foundation


PHONE : (021) 70081995 – 5703646

email :,

Copyright © 2009, Fight Child Sexual Abuse and Pedophilia  Network  Information Education Network. All rights reserved